North Carolina's Lord Proprietors
- Edward Hyde, Earl of Clarendon
Edward Hyde was the First Earl of Clarendon. He began his career in Parliament in 1640 as King Charles I critic. Eventually, he became one of the king's close advisors and served as Chancellor of the Exchequer. After Charles I was executed, he wrote a history of the Civil war and joined Charles II in exile.
After the Restoration of the Monarchy, he became Lord Chancellor of England and was named Earl of Clarendon. His daughter, Anne, married the king's brother James. Two of his granddaughters (Mary II and Anne) became queens. Clarendon County, South Carolina, was named for him.
- George Monck, Duke of Albemarle
George Monck was a general in the English Civil War. He was honored for leading a campaign in Ireland and defeating the Dutch at sea. Monck supported Parliament and Oliver Cromwell, but after Cromwell's death, he used the army to force Parliament to dissolve and call for new elections. The newly elected Parliament invited Charles II to take the throne. Newly crowned, Charles II named George Monck, Duke of Albemarle. Under Charles II, he served as "master of his majesty's horse and captain-general of all his forces."
Both Albemarle County, North Carolina and Albemarle Sound were named for him. The initial settlement in northeastern North Carolina was also named Albemarle.
- William Craven, Lord Craven
William Craven was an English soldier who fought in Europe during the English Civil War. Financially, he supported Charles I. In 1664, he was named a lieutenant-general and the 1st Earl of Craven. Craven County, North Carolina is named for him.
- John Berkeley, Lord Berkeley
John Berkeley served in the royal army during the Civil Wars and joined Charles II in exile. He was a close friend and advisor of Charles II and his brother, James, Duke of York. He was named Baron Berkeley of Stratton in 1658.
From 1664 to 1674, he was also a proprietor of New Jersey.
- Anthony, Ashley-Cooper, Lord Ashley
Anthony Ashley-Cooper inherited his father's baronetcy and served in Parliament when the Civil War began. First he supported the king, then he served as Cromwell's Council of State. He assisted George Monck in restoring Charles II to the throne. In 1661, he was named Baron Ashley and appointed Chancellor of the Exchecquer, in charge of the royal treasury. In 1672, he was named 1st Earl of Shaftesbury and became Lord Chancellor of England.
- Sir George Carteret
George Carteret served in the Royal Navy and became Governor of the Isle of Jersey. Later he became a baronet. When Charles I was executed, he proclaimed Charles II king. Charles II remembered the gesture when he was restored to the throne eleven years later. Under Charles II, he held various offices, including vice-Chamberlain of the Household. He was also a proprietor of New Jersey.
Carteret County, North Carolina is named for him.
- Sir William Berkeley
William Berkeley, brother of John, was Governor of Virginia from 1640 - 1652 and 1660 - 1675. He supported Charles I during the Civil War. As a successful and popular governor, he is probably best remembered for putting down Bacon's Rebellion in 1676.
- Sir John Colleton
John Colleton supported Charles I during the Civil War. His property was seized by Parliament and he retired to Barbados. Charles II made him a baronet.
He was a member of the Company of Royal Adventurers Trading to Africa, later reorganized as the Royal African Company, which monopolized the English slave trade and eventually transported 5000 slaves a year to the United States.
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